Antibiotic resistance and genotype of beta-lactamase producing Escherichia coli in nosocomial infections in Cotonou, Benin

Eugénie Anago, Lucie Ayi-Fanou, Casimir D Akpovi, Wilfried B Hounkpe, Micheline Agassounon-Djikpo Tchibozo, Honoré S Bankole2 and Ambaliou Sanni

Abstract

Background: Beta lactams are the most commonly used group of antimicrobials worldwide. The presence of extended-spectrum lactamases (ESBL) affects significantly the treatment of infections due to multidrug resistant strains of gram-negative bacilli. The aim of this study was to characterize the beta-lactamase resistance genes in Escherichia coli isolated from nosocomial infections in Cotonou, Benin.
Methods: Escherichia coli strains were isolated from various biological samples such as urine, pus, vaginal swab, sperm, blood, spinal fluid and catheter. Isolated bacteria were submitted to eleven usual antibiotics, using disc diffusion method according to NCCLS criteria, for resistance analysis. Beta-lactamase production was determined by an acidimetric method with benzylpenicillin. Microbiological characterization of ESBL enzymes was done by double disc synergy test and the resistance genes TEM and SHV were screened by specific PCR.
Results: ESBL phenotype was detected in 29 isolates (35.5%). The most active antibiotic was imipenem (96.4% as susceptibility rate) followed by ceftriaxone (58.3%) and gentamicin (54.8%). High resistance rates were observed with amoxicillin (92.8%), ampicillin (94%) and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (85.7%). The genotype TEM was predominant in ESBL and non ESBL isolates with respectively 72.4% and 80%. SHV-type beta-lactamase genes occurred in 24.1% ESBL strains and in 18.1% of non ESBL isolates.
Conclusion: This study revealed the presence of ESBL producing Eschericiha coli in Cotonou. It demonstrated also high resistance rate to antibiotics commonly used for infections treatment. Continuous monitoring and judicious
antibiotic usage are required.
Keywords: Escherichia coli, ESBL, Resistance gene

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